Marketing By Subtraction

After my posts on presentation tips, I had a couple of people ask me what I would like to see in a presentation.  While I’m kind of difficult to nail down when it comes to the things I’d like to see companies showing me when they get up to pitch something, there is one thing I absolutely would love to see go away in 2013.  I’m getting very tired of seeing marketing based solely on differential marketing.  In other words, your entire marketing message is “We’re Not Those Guys.”

I’ve seen a lot of material recently that follows this methodology.  There might be a cursory mention of features or discussion of capabilities, but even that usually gets framed as in the manner of pointing out what the other products don’t do.  Presentations, marketing guides, and even commercials do this quite a bit.  The biggest example that I’ve seen recently is this commercial by Samsung:

Note that while I use an iPhone, I really don’t take sides in the smartphone marketing battle.  People use what works for them.  However, Samsung has decided to make a marketing campaign that is short on features and long on “gotchas.”  This whole ad is focused on pointing out the difference in features between the two devices.  However, it does by way of concentrating on how the iPhone is bad or lacking rather than spending time talking about what their device has instead.  When the ad is over, I wonder if people are ready to buy Samsung’s product because it has awesome features or because it’s not an iPhone (or in this case, not something used by “those people”).

Could you imagine how this would play out if other mundane items were marketed in a similar manner?  Think about going into a grocery store and seeing ads for apples that say things like “Better taste than oranges!” or “No need to peel like other fruits!”  How about a pet store using marketing such as, “Buy a cat! Less mess than dogs!” or “Take home the superior four legged friend!  Dogs are 10 times friendlier than cats!”

We don’t market other items quite the same way we do in tech.  Even car manufacturers have finally moved away from solely marketing based of differentiation with competitors.  You don’t see as many commercials focused on brand-vs-brand arguments.  Instead, you see a list of features presented in tabular format or something similar.  Even though the feature sets are usually cherry-picked to support the producer of the marketing, there is at least the illusion of balance.

I think it’s time that companies start spending their budgets on telling us what their product does and spend much less time on telling me how they are different than their competitors.  Yes, I know that we will never really be able to eliminate competitive marketing.  There are just some things you can’t get away from.  However, buyers are much more interested in the features of what you’re selling.  If you spend your entire presentation telling me how your widget is better or faster or cheaper than the other company, the potential customer will walk away and be thinking about the other product.  Some might even be tempted to go try out the other product to see if your assertions are true.  In either case, you’ve shifted the discussion from something you control to something you can’t.  If your customers are spending the majority of their time talking about something that isn’t your product, you aren’t doing it right.  It takes a tremendous amount of faith to put your product’s capabilities out there and let the stand on their own.  If you’ve built it right or designed it as well as possible you shouldn’t be worried.  Instead, take that leap of faith and let me decide what works best for me.  After all, you don’t want me to be left with the impression that the only thing unique about your product is that your aren’t your competitors.

Learn Why Things Work

As a nerd, I can safely say that Star Trek II: The Wrath of Khan is the best of all the Star Trek films.  It has great character development, and engaging story, and even some fun dialog.  One throwaway line in particular caught my attention recently and made me think about certifications and studying.

In the first big dramatic scene, the bad guy (Khan) has the good guy (Kirk) outgunned and at his mercy.  While scrambling to find a solution to this unwinnable situation, he settles on the gambit of hacking the bad guy’s ship.  When the green lieutenant asks the good guy why he needs the secret code (prefix code) for the bad guy’s ship, the good guy admonishes the lieutenant with the following line:

You have to learn why things work on a starship.

In a movie filled with other great quotes and scenes, this one throwaway line goes unnoticed.  I even had to find a copy of the script to be sure I got it right.  But when it comes to certification, that line holds a lot of power.  You might even say that it sums up the totality of the certification process, as well as the reason why some people that pass still have trouble in the real world.

Everything in networking, or IT for that matter, follows a set of rules.  Programs execute based on a set of instructions.  Electrical signals follow the laws of physics.  Unlike the Matrix, these rules are very seldom flexible.  The same inputs almost always produce the same outputs.  There is no magic or mystical explanation for these behaviors.  Everything does what it does because of these rules.

When you take the time to learn why a protocol behaves in a specific way or why a device  exhibits a certain erratic behavior during troubleshooting, you have a more complete understanding of all the factors that go into that behavior.  Just like in the above example, the good guy is the old veteren of many starship voyages.  He knows why ships behave they way they do.  Because he knows why the ships have a prefix code, he knows how to exploit that behavior against someone that doesn’t know in order to escape the situation.  Someone without knowledge of why things are the way they are would miss that as a possibility simply because it doesn’t exist to them.

Far too often, people seeking certification don’t want to know why something behaves in the way that it does.  They simply want to know the answer to the question or they want to learn the trivia facts in order to satisfy the multiple choice part of the exam.  When it comes time to apply that knowledge those students that don’t understand things beyond fact memorization can’t cope.  For example, look at a simple layer 2 bridging loop.  Most people that have experienced this will tell you simply that it takes the entire network down. Easy enough to explain why it’s bad.  But why does it do this?  You have to dig a little deeper to find the answer.  You have to understand that bridges forward unknown unicast frames out of every port except the ingress port.  Then you have to know there isn’t a method for layer 2 Time To Live (TTL) so those unicast frames can eventually age out of the network.  Finally, you have to know that the impact of all those unicast frames being constantly forwarded out of the bridge eventually overwhelms the CPU and causes the bridge to stop forwarding traffic of all kinds because it can’t keep up.  There’s a lot of why in that explanation.  Learning all of it means you know a myriad of ways to prevent the problem from happening in the first place.  Knowing why means when you develop a new protocol down the road you can address those things and fix them (hello L2 TTL!)

If you skip the why, you miss out on a huge part of troubleshooting and configuration.  Every command has a reason for existing.  Every setting has a valid excuse for being included.  Taking the extra time to learn about those things is what separates the good network rock stars from the rest of the pack.  The dedication and time invested in learning something that completely really shows to potential employers and people conducting technical interviews.  But don’t take my word for it.  Instead, listen to CCIE Instructor Marko Milivojevic:

I couldn’t have said it better myself.

Lightening The Linksys Load

If you’re in the mood to pick up an interesting present for someone this holiday season, you may be in luck. Rumor has it that Cisco is looking to offload Linksys. Again. According to the rumors, Cisco is shopping Linksys to manufacturers of TVs for a lot less than the $500 million they paid for it a decade ago. This isn’t the first time that there have been rumors about the demise of Linksys. A year and a half ago, I even had something to say about it. My opinion of the situation hasn’t really changed from that previous blog post. What has changed is the way that Linksys has been marketed.

Cisco has known for a while that it’s fighting a losing battle in the consumer market. Cheaper vendors have been attacking them on price. Premium vendors have been offering significantly more advanced devices. It also doesn’t help that the Linksys brand itself has been murky for the past several months. Cisco has attached the Linksys name not only to the shrink wrapped boxes you find in your favorite dying big box retailer but also to many of their small business products as well. You can now buy a Linksys phone system, switches, wireless APs, and routers. Many of these products used to carry a Cisco SMB brand but were rebranded in order to give Linksys a bit more robust feel. This was probably a bad decision on Cisco’s part. No matter which piece of equipment you choose to carry the Linksys logo, most of your SMB customer base is going to have visions of trying to buy a wireless router at Best Buy. I had a very similar conversation a few years ago with D-Link. One of their reps came in to try and sell me on their enterprise line of switches. At this point I said to myself, “D-Link makes enterprise gear?!?” I was informed they were a large vendor of this type of gear. They were rather popular in Europe, according to the rep. My response? “So is David Hasselhoff.” No matter what you build with that brand, you’re still going to conjure images of your consumer brand. Linksys shares that same fate.

Cisco has made no secret that they want to start moving toward software as the core of their network offerings. When John Chambers finally retires in a couple of years, he wants to be sure that he hit his last market transition. In order to make the voyage to the Land of Software he’s going to have to shed some weight. I think Linksys is the biggest piece of that weight. After the Flip and ümi closures last year, Chambers needed some breathing room before turning the lights out in other areas. Linksys still holds enough value to fetch a fair price on the open market. Seeing as it’s being shopped to TV manufacturers this would be an excellent opportunity for a mid-market player to catch up to Samsung or Vizio in terms of network offerings. All these devices are going to need to be networked. Most of them come with wireless cards today. With 802.11ad still too far off to be of useful impact today for short-range high speed networking, manufacturers are going to need a stop-gap solution today. Likewise, Cisco has to make the decision whether or not to invest the R&D in the brand to get to those new protocols and devices. Most consumers today own an 802.11n wireless router of some kind. Those people are unlikely to buy a new device until there’s a protocol change or some kind of massive increase in throughput. And even when it does come time to make that upgrade, users are unlikely to spend the kind of money that it would take to recover the cost of development. If Cisco really wants to concentrate on software in the future, doubling down on unprofitable hardware today makes little sense.


Tom’s Take

My Cisco Valet Plus, which is really just a rebranded Linksys WRT310N, now sits on my bookshelf unused. I finally decided to move on to something that fits my usage profile better. I settled on an Apple Airport Extreme. I now have dual band radios, guest access, and a USB port for my Time Machine backups. I might have been able to get a lot of this in a Linksys device, but I grew tired of trying to figure out which one I needed. There was also a lot of feature similarity between the hardware that only seemed to be limited by firmware instead of hardware. For better or worse, I didn’t buy Linksys. Cisco is hoping that someone will buy it from them now. That buyer is going to get an entrenched consumer networking product that has some life left in it. As for Cisco, they get to rid themselves of a peculiar albatross that has weighed heavily on them as of late. Lets hope the Linksys Diet pays off.

Juniper MX Series – Review

A year ago I told myself I needed to start learning Junos.  While I did sign up for the Fast Track program and have spent a lot of time trying to get the basics of the JNCIA down, I still haven’t gotten around to taking the test.  In the meantime, I’ve had a lot more interaction with Juniper users and Juniper employees.  One of those was Doug Hanks.  I met him at Network Field Day 4 this year.  He told me about a book that he had recently authored that I might want to check out if I wanted to learn more about Junos and specifically the MX router platform.  Doug was kind enough to send me an autographed copy:

MX Series Cover

The covers on O’Reilly books are always the best.  It’s like a zoo with awesome content inside.

This is not a book for the beginner.  Frankly, most O’Reilly press books are written for people that have a good idea about what they’re doing.  If you want to get your feet wet with Junos, you probably need to look at the Day One guides that Juniper provides free of charge.  When you’ve gone through those and want to step up to a more in-depth volume you should pick up this book.  It’s the most extensive, exhaustive guide to a platform that I’ve ever seen in a very long time.  This isn’t just an overview of the MX or a simple configuration guide.  This book should be shipped with every MX router that leaves Sunnyvale.  This is a manual for the TRIO chipset and all the tricks you can do on it.

The MX Series book does a great job of not only explaining what makes the MX and TRIO chipset different, but also how to make it perform at the top of its game.  The chapter on Class of Service (CoS) alone is worth its weight in gold.  That topic has worried me in the past because of other vendor’s simplified command line interfaces for Quality of Service (QoS).  This book spells everything out in a nice orderly fashion and makes it all make more sense than I’ve seen before.  I’m pretty sure those pages are going to get reused a lot as I start my journey down the path of Junos.  But just because the book make things easy to understand doesn’t mean that it’s shallow on technical knowledge or depth.  The config snippet for DDoS mitigation is fifteen pages long!  That’s a lot of info that you aren’t going to find in a day one guide.  And all of those chapters are backed up with case studies.  It’s not enough that you know how to configure some obscure command.  Instead, you need to see where to use it and what context makes the most sense.  That’s where these things hit home for me.  I was always a fan of word problems in math.  Simple formulas didn’t really hit home for me.  I needed an example to reinforce the topic.  This book does an outstanding job of giving me those case studies.


Tom’s Take

The Juniper MX Series book is now my reference point for what an deep dive tome on a platform should look like.  It covers the technology to a very exhaustive depth without ever really getting bogged down in the details.  If you sit down and read this cover to cover, you will come away with a better understanding of the MX platform that anyone else on the planet except perhaps the developers.  That being said, don’t sit down and read it all at once.  Take the time to go into the case studies and implement them on your test lab to see how the various features interact together.  Use this book as an encyclopedia, not as a piece of fireside reading material.  You’ll thank yourself much later when you’re not having dreams of CoS policies and tri-color policers.

Disclaimer

This copy of Juniper MX Series was provided to me at no charge by Doug Hanks for the purpose of review.  I agreed with Doug to provide an unbiased review of his book based on my reading of it.  There was no consideration given to him on the basis of providing the book and he never asked for any when providing it.  The opinions and analysis provided in this review reflect my views and mine alone.

Unlearning IPv4

"You must unlearn what you have learned." -Yoda

“You must unlearn what you have learned.” -Yoda

As network rock stars, we’ve all spent the majority of our careers learning how to do things.  We learn how to address interfaces and configure routing protocols.  For many of those out there, technology has changed often enough that we often find ourselves need to retrain.  Whether it be a new version of an old protocol or an entirely new way of thinking about things, there will always come a time when it’s necessary to pick up new knowledge.  However, in the case of updated knowledge it’s often difficult to process.  That’s because the old way of doing things interposes itself in our brains while we’re learning to do it the new way.  How many times have you been practicing something only to hear a little voice in the back of your head saying, “That’s not right.  You should be doing it this way.”  In many ways, it’s like trying to reprogram the pathway in your brain that leads to the correct solution to your problem.

This is very apparent to me when it comes to learning how to configure and setup IPv6 on a network.  Those just starting out in the big wide world of IPv6 need to have some kind of reference point to start configuring things, so they tend to lean back on their IPv4 training in order to get started.  This can work for some applications.  For others, though, it can be quite detrimental to getting IPv6 running the way it should.  Instead of carrying forward the old way of doing things because “that’s just the way they should be done,” you need to start unlearning IPv4.  The little green guy in Empire Strikes Back hit the nail on the head.  The whiney farm boy had spent so much of his life convinced that something was impossible that he couldn’t conceive that someone could lift his starship out of a swamp with the Force.  He had to unlearn that lifting things with his mind was impossible.  Once you take that little step, nothing can stop you from accomplishing anything.

With that in mind, here are a few things that need to be unlearned from our days working with IPv4.  Note that this won’t be easy.  But nothing worth doing is ever easy.

Address Conservation – This one is the biggest stumbling block today.  Look at all the discussion we’ve got around point-to-point links and whether to address them with a /64 or a /127 bit mask.  People claim that addressing this link with a /64 wastes addresses.  To  quote the old guy in the desert from Star Wars, “It’s true, depending on your point of view.”  In a given /64, there are approximately 18 quadrillion addresses available (I’m rounding to make the math easy).  If you address a point-to-point link with a /64, you’re only going to be using 0.0000000000000000001% of those addresses (thats 1 * 10^-19).  To many, that’s a pretty big waste.  But with numbers that big, your frame of reference gets screwed up.  By example, take a subnet with 4,094 hosts, which today would need /20 in IPv4.  That’s about the biggest single subnet I can imagine creating.  If you address that 4,094 host subnet with a /64 in IPv6, you’d end up using 0.0000000000000002% (2 * 10^-16) of the address space.  Waste is all a matter of perspective.  On the other hand, by addressing a link with a bit mask beyond a /64, we break neighbor discovery and secure neighbor discovery and PIM sparse mode with embedded RP among other things.  We need to unlearn the address conservation mentality and instead concentrate on making our networks easier to configure and manage.

Memorizing IP addresses – I’m guilty of this.  I spend a lot of time working at the command line with IPv4, whether it be via telnet or SSH or even just plugging numbers into a GUI.  My CUCM systems are setup to use IP only.  I memorize the addresses of my servers, or in many cases try to make this as similar mnemonically to other systems to jog my memory about where to find them in IP space.  In IPv6, memorizing addresses is going to be impossible.  It’s hard enough for me to remember non-RFC1918 address space as it is with 4 octets of decimal numbers.  Now quadruple that and add in hex addressing.  And when it comes to workstations with SLAAC or DHCPv6 assigned addresses?  Forget about it.  Rather than memorizing address space, we’re going to need to start using DNS for communications between endpoints.  Yes, that means setting up DNS for all your routers and CUCM servers too.  It’s going to be a lot of extra work up front.  It’ll pay off in the long run, though.  I’m sure you’d much rather refer to CUCM1.local rather than trying to remember fe80::ba8d:12ff:fe0b:8aff every time you want to get to the phone server.

Subnet Masks – Never again will you need to see 255 in an IPv6 address unless it’s part of the address.  Subnet masking is dead and buried.  Instead, bit masks and slash notation rule the day.  This is going to be one of the most welcome changes in IPv6, but I think it’s going to take a long time to unlearn.  Not really as much for network engineers, but mainly for the people that have ancillary involvement with networking, such as the server people.  Think about the number of server admins that you’ve talked to that have memorized that the subnet mask of their network card is 255.255.255.0.  Now, ask them what that means. Odds are good they can’t tell you.  Worse, some of them might say that it’s a Class C subnet mask.  It’s a little piece of anecdotal information that they heard once when the network folks were talking that they just picked up.  Granted, most of the time the servers are going to be addresses with a /64 bit mask on the IPv6 address.  That’s still going to take a while to explain to the non-networking people.  No, you don’t need any more 255s in your address.  Yes, the /64 is the same as that, sort of.  No, there’s math involved.  Yes, I’ll take care of all the math.

Ships in the Night – As I said on my recent appearance on the Class C block podcast, I think it’s high time that networking vendors stop treating IPv4 and IPv6 like they are separate entities.  I know that I’ve spent the better part of this blog post talking about how IPv4 and IPv6 require a difference in application and not carrying across old habits and conventions.  The two protocols are more alike that they are different.  That means that we need to stop thinking of IPv6 as an afterthought.  Take a look at the CCIE.  There’s still a separate section for IPv6.  It feels like it was just a piece that was added on to the end of the exam instead of being integrated into the core lab.  Look at Kurt Bales’ review of the JNCIE lab that he took.  Specifically, the last bullet point.  You could be asked to configure something on either IPv4 or IPv6, or even both!  Juniper understands that the people taking the JNCIE today aren’t going to have the luxury of concentrating on just IPv4.  The world is going to require us to use IPv6, so I think it’s only fair that our certification programs start doing the same.  IPv6 should be integrated into every level of certification from CCNA/JNCIA all the way up to CCIE/JNCIE.


Tom’s Take

Working with IPv6 is a big change from the way we’ve done things in the past.  With SLAAC and integrated IPSec, the designers have done a great job of making our lives easier with things that we’ve needed for a long time.  However, we’re doing our best to preclude our transition to IPv6 by carrying over a lot of baggage from IPv4.  I know that our brains look for patterns and like to settle on familiarity as a way to help train for new challenges.  If we aren’t careful, we’re going to carry over too much of the old familiar networking and make IPv6 difficult to work with.  Unlearning what we think we know about networking is a good first step.  A person may learn something quickly with familiarity, but they can learn even faster when they approach it with a blank slate and a keen interest to learn.  With that approach, even the impossible won’t keep you from succeeding.

The Five Stages of IPv6 and NAT

I think it’s time to put up a new post on IPv6 and NAT.  Mainly because I’m still getting comments on my old NAT66 post from last year.  I figured it would be nice to create a new place for people to start telling me how necessary NAT is for the Internet of the future.

In the interim, though, I finally had a chance to attend the Texas IPv6 Task Force Winter 2012 meeting.  I got to hear wonderful presentations from luminaries such as John Curran of ARIN, Owen DeLong of Hurricane Electric, and even Jeff Doyle of Routing TCP/IP book fame.  There was a lot of great discussion about IPv6 and the direction that we need to be steering adoption of the new address paradigm.  I also got some very interesting background about the formation of IPv6.  When RFC 1550 was written to start soliciting ideas about a new version of IP, the Internet was a much different place.  Tim Berners-Lee was just beginning to experiment with HTTP.  The majority of computers connected to the Internet used FTP and Telnet.  Protocols that we take for granted today didn’t exist.  I knew IPSec was a creation of the IPv6 working group.  But I didn’t know that DHCP wasn’t created yet (RFC 2131).  Guess what?  NAT wasn’t created yet either (RFC 1631).  Granted, the IPng (IPv6) informational RFC 1669 was published after NAT was created, but NAT as we know and use it today wasn’t really formalized until RFC 2663.  That’s right, folks.

The reason NAT66 doesn’t exist is because IPv6 was built at a time when NAT didn’t exist.

It’s like someone turned on a lightbulb.  That’s why NAT66 has always felt so wrong to me. Because the people that created IPv6 had no need for something that didn’t exist.  IPv6 was about creating a new protocol with advanced features like automatic address configuration and automatic network detection and assignment.  I mean, take a look at the two IPv6 numbering methods.  Stateless Automatic Autoconfiguration (SLAAC) can assign all manner of network information to a host.  I can provide prefixes and gateways and even default routes.  However, the one thing that I can’t provide in basic SLAAC is a DNS server entry.  In fact, I can’t provide any of the commonly assigned DHCP options, such as NTP server or other vendor-specific fields.  SLAAC is focused solely on helping hosts assign addresses to themselves and get basic IP connectivity to the global Internet.  Now, take DHCPv6.  This stateful protocol can keep track of options like DNS server or NTP server.  It can also provide a database of assignments so I know which machine has which IP.  But you know what critical piece of information it can’t provide?  A default router.  That’s right, DHCPv6 has no method of assigning a default router or gateway to an end node.  I’m sure that’s due to the designers of DHCPv6 knowing that SLAAC and router advertisements (RA) handle the network portion of things.  The two protocols need to work together to get hosts onto the internet.  In 1995, that was some pretty advanced stuff.  Today, we think auto addressing and network prefix assignment is pretty passé.

Instead of concentrating on solving the dilemma of increasing the adoption rate of IPv6 past the 1% mark where it currently resides, we’ve instead turned to the Anger and Bargaining phases of the Küber-Ross model, otherwise known as the Five Stages of Grief. The need for IPv6 can no longer be denied.  The reality of running out of IPv4 addresses is upon us.  Instead, we lash out against that which we don’t understand or threatens us.  IPv6 isn’t ready for real networking.  There are security risks.  End-to-end communications aren’t important.  IPv6 is too expensive to maintain.  People aren’t smart enough to implement it.  Any of those sound familiar?  Maybe not those exact words, but I’ve heard arguments very similar to that leveled at IPv6 in just the two short years that I’ve been writing.  Think about how John Curran of ARIN must feel twenty years after he started working on the protocol.

Anger is something I can handle.  Getting yelled at or called expletives is all part of networking.  It’s the Bargaining phase that scares me.  Now, armed with a quiver of use cases that perhaps 5% of the population will ever take advantage of, we now must delay adoption or move to something entirely different to support those use cases.  It’s the equivalent of being afraid to jump off a diving board because there is a possibility that the water will drain out of the pool on the way down.  The most diabolical is Carrier Grade NAT.  Let’s NAT our NATed networks to keep IPv4 around just a little longer.  It won’t cause that many problems, really.  After all, we’ve only got 65,536 ports that we can assign for any given PAT setup.  So if we take that limit and extend it yet another level, we have 65,536 PATed PAT translations that we can assign per CGN gateway.  That has real potential to break applications, and not just from an end-to-end connectivity point of view. To prove my point, fire up any connection manager and go to http://maps.google.com.  See how many separate connection requests are spawned when those map tiles start loading.  Now, imagine what would happen if you could only load ten or fifteen of them.  There’s going to be a lot of blank spots on the that map.

Now, for the fun part.  I’ve been accused of hating NAT.  Yes, it’s true.  I dislike any protocol that breaks basic connectivity and causes headaches for troubleshooting and end-to-end communications.  I have to live with it in IPv4.  I’d rather not see it carried forward.  That’s the feeling of many IPv6 evangelists.  If you think I dislike NAT, ask Owen DeLong his feelings on the subject.  However, to say that I dislike NAT for no good reason is silly.  People are angry at me for saying the emperor has no clothes.  Every time I discuss the lack of need for NAT66, the same argument gets thrown in my face.  Ivan Pepelnjak wrote an article about about using network prefix translation (NPT) in a very specific case.  If you are multihoming your network to two different providers and not using BGP then a case for NPT can be made.  It’s not the best solution, but it’s the easiest.  Much like Godwin’s Law, as the length of any NAT66 argument increases, the probability of someone bringing up Ivan’s article approaches approaches one.

So, I’ve found a solution to the problem.  I’m going to fix this one scenario.  I’m going to dedicate my time to solving the multihoming without BGP issue.  When I do that, I expect choirs of angels to sing and a chariot pulled by unicorns to arrive at my home to escort me to my new position of Savior of IPv6 Adoption.  More realistically, I expect someone else to find a corner case rationale for why IPv6 isn’t the answer.  Of course, that’s just another attempt at bargaining.  By that point, I’ll have enough free time to solve the next issue.  Until then, I suggest the following course of action:

BYOD vs MDM – Who Pays The Bill?

Generic Mobile Devices

There’s a lot of talk around now about the trend of people bringing in their own laptops and tablets and other devices to access data and do their jobs.  While most of you (including me) call this Bring Your Own Device (BYoD), I’ve been hearing a lot of talk recently about a different aspect of controlling mobile devices.  Many of my customers have been asking me about Mobile Device Management (MDM).  MDM is getting mixed into a lot of conversations about controlling the BYoD explosion.

Mobile Device Management (MDM) refers to the process of controlling the capabilities of a device via a centralized control point, whether it be in the cloud or on premises.  MDM can restrict functions of a device, such as the camera or the ability to install applications.  It can also restrict which data can be downloaded and saved onto a device.  MDM also allows device managers to remotely lock the device in the event that it is lost or even remotely wipe the device should recovery be impossible.  Vendors are now pushing MDM is a big component of their mobility offerings.  Every week, it seems like some new vendor is pushing their MDM offering, whether it be a managed service software company, a wireless access point vendor, or even a dedicated MDM provider.  MDM is being pushed as the solution to all your mobility pain points.  There’s one issue though.

MDM is a very intrusive solution for mobile devices.  A good analogy might be the rules you have for your kids at home.  There are many things they are and aren’t allowed to do.  If they break the rules, there are consequences and possible punishments.  Your kids have to follow your rules if they live under your roof.  Such is the way for MDM as well.  Most MDM vendors that I’ve spoken to in the last three months take varying degrees of intrusion to the devices.  One Windows Mobile provider started their deployment process with a total device wipe before loading an approved image onto the mobile device.  Others require you to trust specific certificates or enroll in special services.  If you run Apple’s iOS and designate the device as a managed device in iOS 6 to get access to certain new features like the global proxy setting, you’ll end up having a wiped device before you can manage it.  Services like MobileIron can even give administrators the ability to read any information on the device, regardless of whether it’s personal or not.

That level of integration into a device is just too much for many people bringing their personal devices into a work environment.  They just want to be able to check their email from their phone.  They don’t want a sneaky admin reading their text messages or even wiping their entire phone via a misconfigured policy setting or a mistaken device loss.  Could you image losing all your pictures or your bank account info because Exchange had a hiccup?  And what about pushing MDM polices down to disable your camera due to company policy or disable your ability to make in-app purchases from your app repository of choice?  How about setting a global proxy server so you are restricted from browsing questionable material from the comfort of your own home?  If you’re like me, any of those choices make me cringe a little.

That’s why BYoD polices are important.  They function more like having your neighbor’s children over at your house.  While you may have rules for your children, the neighbor’s kids are just vistors.  You can’t really punish them like you’d punish your own kids.  Instead, you make what rules you can to prevent them from doing things they aren’t supposed to do.  In many cases, you can send the neighbor’s kids to a room with your own kids to limit the damage they can cause.  This is very much in line with the way we treat devices with BYoD settings.  We try to authenticate users to ensure they are supposed to be accessing data on our network.  We place data behind access lists that try to determine location or device type.  We use the network as the tool to limit access to data as opposed to intruding on the device.

Both BYoD and MDM are needed in a corporate environment to some degree. The key to figuring out which needs to be applied where can be boiled down to one easy question:

Who paid for your device?

If the user bought their device, you need to be exploring BYoD polices as your primary method of securing the network and enabling access.  Unless you have a very clearly defined policy in place for device access, you can’t just assume you have the right to disable half a user’s device functions and then wipe it whenever you feel the need.  Instead, you need to focus your efforts on setting up rules that they should follow and containing their access to your data with access lists and user authentication.  On the other hand, if the company paid for your tablet then MDM is the likely solution in mind.  Since the device belongs to the corporation, they are will within their rights to do what they would like with it.  Use it just like you would a corporate laptop or an issued Blackberry instead of a personal iPhone.  Don’t be shocked if it gets wiped or random features get turned off due to company policy.

Tom’s Take

When it’s time to decide how best to manage your devices, make sure to pull out all those old credit card receipts.  If you want to enable MDM on all your corporate phones and tablets, be sure to check out http://enterpriseios.com/ for a list of all the features supported in a given MDM provider for both iOS and other OSes like Android or Blackberry.  If you didn’t get the bill for that tablet, then you probably want to get in touch with your wireless or network vendor to start exploring the options available for things like 802.1X authentication or captive portal access.  In particular, I like some of the solutions available from Aerohive and Aruba’s ClearPass.  You’re going to want both MDM and BYoD policies in your environment to be sure your devices are as useful as possible while still being safe and protecting your network.  Just remember to back it all up with a very clear, detailed written use policy to ensure there aren’t any legal ramifications down the road from a wiped device or a lost phone causing a network penetration.  That’s one bill you can do without.