I had the good fortune last week to read a great post from Maish Saidel-Keesing (@MaishSK) that discussed security models in relation to candy. It reminded me that I’ve been wanting to discuss security models in relation to desserts. And since Maish got me hungry for a Snicker’s bar, I decided to lay out my ideas.
When we look at traditional security models of the past, everything looks similar to creme brûlée. The perimeter is very crunchy, but it protects a soft interior. This is the predominant model of the world where the “bad guys” all live outside of your network. It works when you know where your threats are located. This model is still in use today where companies explicitly trust their user base.
The creme brûlée model doesn’t work when you have large numbers of guest users or BYOD-enabled users. If one of them brings in something that escapes into the network, there’s nothing to stop it from wreaking havoc everywhere. In the past, this has caused massive virus outbreaks and penetrations from things like malicious USB sticks in the parking lot being activated on “trusted” computers internally.
A Slice Of Pie
A more modern security model looks more like an apple pie. Rather than trusting that everything inside the network, the smart security team will realize that users are as much of a threat as the “bad guys” outside. They crunchy crust on top will also be extended around the whole soft area inside. Users that connect tablets, phones, and personal systems will have a very aggressive security posture in place to prevent access of anything that could cause problems in the network (and data center). This model is great when you know that the user base is not to be trusted. I wrote about it over a year ago on the Aruba Airheads community site.
The apple pie model does have some drawbacks. While it’s a good idea to isolate your users outside the “crust”, you still have nothing protecting your internal systems if a rogue device or “trusted” user manages to get inside the perimeter. The pie model will protect you from careless intrusions but not from determined attackers. To fix that problem, you’re going to have to protect things inside the network with a crunchy shell as well.
Melts In Your Firewall, Not In Your Hand
Maish was right on when he talked about M&Ms being a good metaphor for security. They also do a great job of visualizing the untrusted user “pie” model. But the ultimate security model will end up looking more like an M&M cookie. It will have a crunchy edge all around. It will be “soft” in the middle. And it will also have little crunchy edges around the important chocolate parts of your network (or data center). This is how you protect the really important things like customer data. You make sure that even getting past the perimeter won’t grant access. This is the heart of “defense in depth”.
The M&M cookie model isn’t easy by any means. It requires you to identify assets that need to be protected. You have to build the protection in at the beginning. No ACLs that permit unrestricted access. The communications between untrusted devices and trusted systems needs to be kept to the bare minimum necessary. Too many M&Ms in a cookie makes for a bad dessert. So too must you make sure to identify the critical systems that need be protected and group them together to minimize configuration effort and attack surface.
Security is a world of protecting the important things while making sure they can be used by people. If you err on the side of too much caution, you have a useless system. If you are too permissive, you have a security risk. Balance is the key. Just like the recipe for cookies, pie, or even creme brûlée the proportion of ingredients must be just right to make a tasty dessert. In security you have to have the same mix of permissions and protections. Otherwise, the whole thing falls apart like a deflated soufflé.