The Complexity Of Choice

Russ White had an interesting post this week about the illusion of choices and how herd mentality is driving everything from cell phones to network engineering and design. I understand where Russ is coming from with his points, but I also think that Russ has some underlying assumptions in his article that ignore some of the complexity that we don’t always get to see in the world. Especially when it comes to the herd.

Collapse Into Now

Russ talks about needing to get a new mobile phone. He talks about how there are only really two choices left in the marketplace and how he really doesn’t want either of them. While I applaud Russ and his decision to stand up for his principals, there are more than two choices. He could easily purchase a used Windows mobile phone from eBay. He could choose to run a Palm Tree 650 or a Motorola RAZR from 2005. He could even choose not to carry a phone.

You’re probably saying, “That’s not a fair comparison. He needs feature X on his phone, so he can’t use phone Y.”

And you would be right! So right, in fact, that you’ve already missed one of the complexities behind making choices. We create artificial barriers to reduce the complexity of options because we have needs to meet. We eliminate chaos when making decisions by creating order to limit our available pool of resources.

Let’s return to the mobile phone argument for a moment. Obviously, not having a phone is not an option. But what does Russ need on his phone that pushed him to the iPhone? I’m assuming he needs more than just voice calling capability. That means he can’t use a Jitterbug even though it’s a very serviceable phone for the user base that wants that specific function set. I’m also sure he needs a web browser capable of supporting modern web designs. Perhaps it’s a real keyboard and not T9 predictive text for everything you could want to type. That eliminates the RAZR from contention.

What we’re left with when we develop criteria to limit choices is not two things we feel very ambivalent about. It’s actually the resulting set of operations on chaos to provide order. Android and iPhone don’t strongly resemble each other because of coincidence. It’s because the resulting set of decision making by consumers has led them to this point. Windows Mobile also suspiciously looks like Android/iOS for the same reason. If the mobile OS on Russ’s phone looked more like Windows Mobile 5.0 instead, I’m sure his reasons for not choosing iOS or Android would have been much stronger.

Automatic For The People

So, why is it in networking and mobile phones and even extra value meals that we find our choices “eliminated” so frequently? How is it that we have the illusion of choice without many real choices at all? As it turns out, the illusion is there not to reinforce our propensity to make choices, but instead to narrow our list of possibly choices to something greater than the set of Everything In The World.

Let’s take a hamburger for instance. If you want a hamburger, you will probably go to a place that makes them. You’ve already made a lot of choices in just that one decision, but let’s move past the basic choices. What is your hamburger going to look like? One meat patty? Three? Will it have a special kind of sauce? Will it be round? Square? Four inches thick? These are all unconscious choices that we make. Sometimes, we don’t make these choices by eliminating every option. Instead, we make them by choosing a location and analyzing the options available there. If I pick McDonald’s as my hamburger location because of another factor, like location or time, then I’ve artificially limited my choices to what’s available at McDonald’s at that moment. I can’t get a square hamburger with extra bacon. Not because it’s unfair that McDonald’s doesn’t offer that option. But because I made my choice about available options before I ever got to that point. The available set of my choices will include round meat patties and American cheese. If I want something different, I need to pick a different restaurant, not demand McDonald’s give me more choices.

Artificially limiting choices for people making decisions sometimes isn’t about resource availability. It’s about product creation. It’s about assembly and complexity in making devices. It’s about what people make important in their decision making process. Let’s take a pretty well-known example:

On the left is the way cell phones were designed before 2007. Every one of them looks interesting in some way. Some had keyboards. Some had flip options. Some had pink cases or external antennas. Now, look at the cluster on the right. They all look identical. They all look like Apple Mobile Phone Device that debuted in 2007. Why? Because customers were making a choice based on form factor that informed the rest of their choices. In 2008, if you wanted a mobile device that was a black rectangle with a multi-touch screen and a software keyboard, your options were pretty limited. Now, I challenge you to find a phone that doesn’t have those options. It’s like trying to find a car without power windows. They do exist, but you have to make some very specific choices to find one.

Tom’s Take

Some choices are going to be made for us before we ever make our first decision. We can’t buy networking switches at McDonald’s. We can’t eat our mobile phones. But what we can do to give ourselves more choices is realize that the trade off for that is expending energy. We must do more to find alternatives that meet our requirements. We have to “think outside the box”, whether that means finding a used device we really like somewhere or rolling our own Linux distribution from Slackware instead of taking the default Ubuntu installation. It means that we’re going to have to make an effort to include more choices instead of making choices that automatically exclude certain options. And after you’ve done that for more than a few things, you will realize that the illusion of few choices isn’t really an illusion, but a mask that helps you preserve your energy for other things.


Automating Documentation

Tedium is the enemy of productivity. The fastest way for a task to not be done is to make it long, boring, and somewhat complicated. People who feel that something is tedious or repetitive are the ones more likely to marginalize a task. And I think I speak for the entire industry when I say that there is no task more tedious and boring than documentation. So how can we fix it?

Tell Me What You Did

I’m not a huge fan of documentation. When I decide on a plan of action, I rarely write it down step-by-step unless I’m trying to train someone. Even then, it looks more like notes with keywords instead of a narrative to follow. It’s a habit that has been borne out of years of firefighting in networks and calls to “do it faster”. The essential items of a task are refined and reduced until all that remains is the work and none of the ancillary items, like documentation.

Based on my previous life as a network engineer, I can honestly say that I’m not alone in this either. My old company made lots of money doing network discovery engagements. Sometimes these came because the previous admins walked out the door with no documentation. Other times, it was simply because the network had changed so much since the last person made any notes that what was going on didn’t resemble anything like what they thought it was supposed to look like.

This happens everywhere. It doesn’t take many instances of an network or systems professional telling themselves, “Oh, I’ll write it down later…” for later to never come. Devices get added, settings get changed, and not one word is ever written down. That’s the kind of chaos that causes disorganization at best and outages at worst. And I doubt there’s any networking pro out there that hasn’t been affected by bad documentation at one time or another.

So, how do we fix documentation? It’s tedious for sure. Requiring it as part of the process just invites people to find ways around it. And good documentation takes time. Is there a way to combine the lack of time, lack of requirement, and repetition and make documentation something that is done again? I think there is. And it requires a little help from process.

Not Too Late To Automate

Automation is a big thing right now. SDN is driving it. Network complexity is practically requiring it. Yet networking professionals are having a hard time embracing it. Why?

In part, networking pros don’t like to spend hours solving a problem that can be done in minutes. If you don’t believe me, watch one of the old SNL Nick Burns sketches. Nick is more likely to tell you to move than tell you how to fix your problem. Likewise, if a network pro is spending four hours writing an automation script that is supposed to execute a change that can be made in 20 minutes, they’re not going to want to do it. It’s just the nature of the job and the desire of the network professional to make every minute count.

So, how can we drive adoption of automation? As it turns out, automating documentation can be a huge driver. Automation of tedious tasks is exactly the thing that scripting and automation was designed to solve. Instead of focusing on the automation of the task, like adding VLANs to a set of switches, focus on the ability of the system to create documentation on the fly from the change.

Let’s walk through an example. In order for documentation to matter, it has to answer the 5 Ws. How can we automate that?

Let’s start with Who. Automation can create documentation saying user Hollingsworth made a change through an automated process. That helps the accounting side of the house figure out the person making changes in the network. If that person is actually a script, the Who can be changed to reflect that it was an automated process called by a person related to a change ticket. That gives everyone the ability to track the changes back to a given problem. And it can all be pulled in without user intervention.

What is also an easy automation task. List the configuration being applied. At first, the system can simply list the configuration to be programmed. But for menial and repetitive tasks like VLAN additions you can program the system with a real description like “Adding VLANs to $Switch to support $ticket”. Those variables can be autopopulated based on the work to be done. Again, we reference a ticket number in order to prove that these changes are coming from somewhere.

When is also critical. Are these changes happening in a maintenance window? Or did someone check them in in the middle of the day because they won’t cause any problems? (SPOILER ALERT: They will) By required a timestamp for changes, you can track which professionals are being cavalier with their change management. You can also find out if someone is getting into the system after hours to cause problems or attempt to compromise things. Even if the cause of the change is “immediately” due to downtime or emergency, knowing why it had to be checked in right away is a clue to finding problems that recur in the network.

Where is a two-pronged reason. It’s important to check where the changes are going to be applied. Is it going to be done to all switches in the organization? Or just a set in a remote office. Sanity checking via documentation will keep you from bricking your entire organization in one fell swoop. Likewise, knowing where the change is being checked in from is important. Is a remote office trying to change config on HQ switches? Is a remote engineer dialed in making changes related to an open support case? Is someone from a foreign nation making changes via VPN at 4:30am local time? In every case, you’d really want to know what’s going on before those changes get made.

Why is the one that will trip up everything. If you don’t believe me, I’d like to give you the top two reasons why Windows Server 2003 is shut down and rebooted with the shutdown justification dialog box:

  1. a;lkdjfalkdflasdfkjadlf;kja;d
  2. JUST ****ing SHUT DOWN!!!!!

People don’t like justifying their decisions. Even when I worked for Gateway 2000 on their national help desk, our required call documentation was a bit spotty when it came to justification for changes. Why did you decide to FDISK and reload? Why are you going into the registry to fix the icon colors? Change justification is half of documentation. It gives people something to audit. It gives people a way to look at things and figure out why you started down the path of a particular reasoning for problem solving. It also provides context for you after the fact when you can’t figure out why you did it the way you did.

Tom’s Take

Automation isn’t going to take away your job. Automation is going to do the jobs you hate doing. It’s going to make your life easier to concentrate on the tasks that need to be done by freeing you from the tasks that should be done and aren’t. If we can make automation document our networks for just six months, I think you’ll find the value in programming things to work this way. I also think you’ll be happier with the level of detail on your network. And once you can prove the value of automating just one task to your teams, I’m sure they’ll see the value of increasing automation all around.

Virtual Reality and Skeuomorphism

Remember skeuomorphism? It’s the idea that the user interface of a program needs to resemble a physical a physical device to help people understand how to use it. Skeuomorphism is not just a software thing, however. Things like faux wooden panels on cars and molded clay rivets on pottery are great examples of physical skeuomorphism. However, most people will recall the way that Apple used skeuomorphism in the iOS when they hear the term.

Scott Forrestal was the genius behind the skeuomorphism in iOS for many years. Things like adding a fake leather header to the Contacts app, the wooden shelves in the iBooks library, and the green felt background in the Game Center app are the examples that stand out the most. Forrestal used skeuomorphism to help users understand how to use apps on the new platform. Users needed to be “trained” to touch the right tap targets or to feel more familiar with an app on sight.

Skeuomorphism worked quite well in iOS for many years. However, when Jonny Ive took over as the lead iOS developer, he started phasing out skeuomorphism starting in iOS 7. With the advent of flat design, people didn’t want fake leather and felt any longer. They wanted vibrant colors and integrated designs. As Apple (and others) felt that users had been “trained” well enough, the decision was made to overhaul the interface. However, skeuomorphism is poised to make a huge comeback.

Virtual Fake Reality

The place where skeuomorphism is about to become huge again is in the world of virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR). VR apps aren’t just limited to games. As companies start experimenting with AR and VR, we’re starting to see things emerge that are changing the way we think about the use of these technologies. Whether it be something as simple as using the camera on your phone combined with AR to measure the length of a rug or using VR combined with a machinery diagram to teach someone how to replace a broken part without the need to send an expensive technician.

Look again at the video above of the AR measuring app. It’s very simple, but it also displays a use of skeuomorphism. Instead of making the virtual measuring tape a simple arrow with a counter to keep track of the distance, it’s a yellow box with numbers printed every inch. Just like the physical tape measure that it is displayed beside. It’s a training method used to help people become acclimated to a new idea by referencing a familiar object. Even though a counter with tenths of an inch would be more accurate, the developer chose to help the user with the visualization.

Let’s move this idea along further. Think of a more robust VR app that uses a combination of eye tracking and hand motions to give access to various apps. We can easily point to what we want with hand tracking or some kind of pointing device in our dominant hand. But what if we want to type? The system can be programmed to respond if the user places their hands palms down 4 inches apart. That’s easy to code. But how to do tell the user that they’re ready to type? The best way is to paint a virtual keyboard on the screen, complete with the user’s preferred key layout and language. It triggers the user to know that they can type in this area.

How about adjusting something like a volume level? Perhaps the app is coded to increase and reduce volume if the hand is held with fingers extended and the wrist rotated left or right. How would the system indicate this to the user? With a circular knob that can be grasped and manipulated. The ideas behind these applications for VR training are only limited by the designers.

Tom’s Take

VR is going to lean heavily on skeuomorphism for many years to come. It’s one thing to make a 2D user interface resemble an amplifier or a game table. But when it comes to recreating constructs in 3D space, you’re going to need to train users heavily to help them understand the concepts in use. Creating lookalike objects to allow users to interact in familiar ways will go a long way to helping them understand how VR works as well as helping the programmers behind the system build a user experience that eases VR adoption. Perhaps my kids or my grandkids will have VR and AR systems that are less skeuomorphic, but until then I’m more than happy to fiddle with virtual knobs if it means that VR adoption will grow more quickly.

Context From The People

Are you ready for the flood of context-based networking solutions? If not, it’s time to invest in sandbags. After the launch of Cisco’s Intuitive Network solution set at Cisco Live, the rest of the context solutions are coming out to play. Granted, some of them are like Apstra and have been doing this for a while. Others are going to be jumping on the bandwagon of providing a solution that helps with context. But why are we here and why now?

Creating Context

The truth is that we’ve had context in the network for decades now. It’s not a part number that we can order from a vendor. It’s not a command that we type into the CLI to activate. In fact, it’s nothing that you can see at all right now, unless there’s a mirror handy.

The context in networks has been provided by people for as far back as anyone can remember. You do it every day without consciously realizing it. You interpret error messages and disregard those that aren’t important. People know how to program VLANs correctly to segment traffic in certain ways. Security context, application context, and more are delivered by breathing, thinking humans.

We have a massive number of tools to help us create additional context and understand things that are beginning to get out of our control. But these tools are still reliant on a person providing the necessary context to operate. Take red light fatigue, for example. This is a situation in which humans are providing context to a situation being reported. For some cases, the red light means that a condition has passed a threshold and there is a corresponding trigger. However, when the context of that trigger is deemed unimportant, the context applied is “ignore that one”. So much context can be applied to a board full of red lights that we eventually become blind to them and miss a real problem when it pops up.

Humans are great at stretching the bounds of thought to understand why situations need context. Humans know when a link is congested enough to need to be configured for longer routing protocol hello timers. Or when a service policy needs to have a bigger exception for scavenger traffic due to incorrect packet markings. But, the question for the future is “How can humans scale?”

Scaling Context

With the rapid expansion of SDN and programmability, we are quickly seeing that mistakes and errors in context can cause massive issues in a short amount of time. Whether it be a botched upgrade or a script that nullifies interfaces, the system is now capable of making mistakes at a very rapid pace. This sounds like the perfect reason for humans to step into the loop and ensure that mistakes like this can’t happen quickly.

But can humans really scale as fast as needed to keep networks running efficiently? That’s the crux of the issue with modern infrastructure teams. The compute and storage group that is moving toward a DevOps-style frameworks wants to make quick decisions and let the system execute them. When those decisions involve the archaic networking team, the process slows down. Why does the network admin need to put this stuff in manually? Why are they reading through the change orders? Why can’t they just trust us and make it happen?!?

Humans are the current source of context for the network. But, much like many other areas of technology, that context needs to be transferred into a form that can scale. We need to teach the network how to handle exceptions and “think” about how to solve issues. We need to begin the process of training the system to replace us. That’s not because we hope that we will eventually be replaced by a shell script. It’s because we have more important things to apply our knowledge to that need to be solved.

Much like network admins have outgrown the need to manually input VLANs and memorize which ports MySQL needs to have opened on the firewall, so too must we start moving away from constantly checking in on the software running the system to ensure that things are running smoothly. Like the learning television programs that show us what an assembly line looks like when slowed down, we as humans need to let the system operate at the speed it can reach without slowing down to help us understand what it’s doing.

Tom’s Take

I long for the day when I don’t need to look at debug output or error messages and provide my opinion about what might be wrong. Networks with machine learning are still in their infancy. They take way too much processing power to determine issues. But they are getting better. More and more companies are going to start leveraging distributed intelligence to help make low-level decisions about operations. That means humans can start focusing on design matters more. And that’s the kind of context where we shine more than anything else.

Why Do You Still Blog?

After recording an excellent session on social media at Cisco Live with The Network Collective (@NetCollectivePC), I started thinking about blogging and where it stands in the grand scheme of information sharing. With the rise of podcasting and video blogging now in full swing, I was even asked by my friend Michael Stump “Do you see blogging as a dying form of content?” For obvious reasons, I said “no”, but I wanted to explain two major reasons why.

Needle In A Haystack

One of the major reasons why I still blog through written form is searchability. When I started blogging almost seven years ago I wanted to create a place where I could put down my thoughts about topics and share them with everyone. More by accident than design, many of those thoughts became popular topics of conversation. Even today, some of my posts are being used to help people figure out problems and address issues that aren’t well documented in other places.

But why? How can posts many years old still be relevant to audiences today? Because of searching. Use of Google, DuckDuckGo, and even Bing allow people to search for specific error messages or topics and find things that I’ve written down. That’s because text on posts is easily indexed by web crawlers. Even when my posts are excerpted on other sites it just drives more people back to my blog to find my content. The power of being able to find something can’t be understated.

But what about audio and video content? How can it be searched? Sure, you can write down show notes. But show notes are like network and systems documentation. At first, they’re very detailed and useful. But after time passes, they are essentially the bare minimum necessary to be able to move on. That makes it difficult to search for specific content inside of an episode. In fact, the show notes from most podcast episodes would be content for two blogs!

Additionally, the banter and discussion during the episode are hard to capture in text format. If the show notes mention that the guests spend 3-4 minutes talking about some topic, realize that most people speak in conversation at around 125 words per minute (wpm). With two guests debating the topic for 4 minutes, that’s 500 words or more on a topic! How can you capture the essence of the discussion in a single line show note with perhaps one or two links to outside material? Blogs allow all of that to be tracked, indexed, and referenced at a later date without needed to scrub through the audio to find out exactly what was said.

Can I Have Your Attention, Please?

If you’ve been reading along to this point so far, you know that I prefer writing my thoughts out. That is, if you’ve been paying attention. I also prefer reading words instead of podcasts for the most part. Why? Well, that has to do with my full and undivided attention.

When I’m reading something, I’m using my active reading skills. I’m focused the content in front of me. I use my attention to absorb the words and concepts. It does take a lot of concentration to do this. Since part of my job is reading blogs it’s easy for me to set aside time to do this task. But it does take away from other things that I’m doing. I often find myself shutting out other conversation or ignoring things going on around me while I try to digest new topics or evaluate someone’s opinion on a subject.

Conversely, when is the last time you actively listened to a podcast? I mean, you sat down with a pair of headphones and really listened to it? Not just put it on in the background and casually listened to the discussion while you went on with work or something else. I’d bet the answer is that you frequently find yourself splitting your attention. I know I do it. I even split my focus when I’m recording podcasts if they aren’t on video. It’s very easy to lose track of what’s going on without a visual focus point.

Podcasts are active. They project the conversation you. Likewise, the consumers of podcasts are passive. They aren’t seeking knowledge. They are being fed knowledge via an audio (or video) stream. But written words aren’t that aggressive. They require someone to consume them actively. You don’t accidentally click on a link and find yourself full of knowledge ten minutes later without having put in the effort to read what was on the page. You can’t read blog posts without paying attention. If you do, you find yourself missing the point and reading them all over again to find out what you missed in the first place.

Tom’s Take

I love to write. I never did when I was in school or when I was first starting out in technology, but as time has worn on, I find myself growing to love using a keyboard to share what’s in my brain. I’ve recorded podcasts and videos as well, but I keep coming back to the written word. I like the ability to have other people find my content useful years after the fact via a search or a referral. I also enjoy the idea that people are focused on what I’m saying and ingesting it actively instead of having it fed to them via a speaker or headphones. Maybe it’s because I use other media, like TV and music, to provide background noise to focus as I write and do other things. At the end of the day, I blog because it’s the method of communication I most prefer to consume.

Not The Cisco of John Chambers Anymore

I just got back from Cisco Live 2017 last night and I had a blast at the show. There was a lot of discussion about new architectures, new licensing models, and of course, Tech Field Day Extra. However, one of the most interesting topics went largely under the radar. I think we’re fully in the transition of Cisco away from being the Company of John Chambers.

Steering A Tall Ship

John Chambers wasn’t the first CEO of Cisco. But he’s the one that most people would recognize. He transformed the company into the juggernaut that it is today. He watched Cisco ascend to the leader in the networking space and helped it transform into a company that embraced voice, security, and even servers and compute as new business models.

John’s Cisco is a very unique animal. It’s not a single company. It’s a collection of many independent companies with their own structures and goals all competing with each other for resources. If John decided that UCS was more important to his goals this quarter, he shifted some of the support assets to focus on that business unit. It was a featured product, complete with healthy discounts to encourage user adoption.

Product lines that didn’t perform as well were usually shown the door or swept under the rug. Even larger, well-publicized acquisitions tended to disappear under the spotlight of harsh criticism. Flip Video, Cius, and even Umi are not only lackluster products, but I bet you even forgot about one or two of them. John didn’t like highlighting failures any more than any of us, but the failures were often highlighted in spite of their stellar up-front marketing and sudden disappearance.

You can’t run the ship forever, though. Eventually, John knew he would need to step down. He had courted many, many heirs apparent in his time at Cisco. There were literally a dozen or more people inside the organization that saw themselves as the next CEO of the company. And when the time came to name his successor, Chuck Robbins was not the first name on a lot of lists. But his ascension to the throne of the networking powerhouse is turning heads.

Turning The Tall Ship

By all accounts, Cisco is a company in transition. Beset on all sides by cheaper merchant silicon, an industry shift to software-focused architecture, and several upstart companies featuring the best and brightest Cisco talent from years past. Cisco is facing multiple challenges that would have been singularly laughable a decade ago.

Part of this challenge comes from the reliance on the hardware model that John Chambers so proudly touted. John loves hardware. There’s margin in hardware. Hardware occupies space. It reminds people of the importance of things. And hardware eventually needs to be replaced. These all speak to the model of a company like the old IBM run by Tom Watson.

But Chuck Robbins sees Cisco differently. His push toward software is turning the ship away from dwindling hardware margins. The Intuitive Network architecture is setting Cisco up to rely more on software innovation than ever before. These are the kinds of organizational shifts that we’ve seen IBM go through as they focused on becoming more aligned with the direction of the industry. But these massive changes aren’t the only things that show how Cisco has transformed.

John Chambers loved the idea of having many, many business units. They were like sworn vassals pledging their loyalty to a distant king. The more voices showing the allegiance, the better. And those vassals could be courted as the possible successor to the throne should the prove worthy. So, when Chuck ascended to the head of the table, he showed his distaste for the vassal approach. He quietly allowed his competitors for the top job to exit gracefully on their terms. That’s not uncommon in situations where the throne is hotly contested.

Chuck also started collapsing those dozens of business units into organizational structure that makes sense. Not marketing wrappers, but real changes. Where before Networking and Security were two ships passing the night, they now run under the control of one person, David Goeckeler. The old Cisco system would have had two or more people reporting back to Chambers. Now, Robbins has one person to talk to about the direction of both of these key pillars of Cisco’s product lines.

A curious appearance of the shift in organizational focus was visible at Cisco Live 2017. In years past, a vice president has served as “host” for the event. They introduce the keynotes and give statistics about the attendance and other key facts. They also did the “interview” of the celebrity keynote speaker on Thursday. This year, there was no host. Chuck came on stage for his keynote without introduction. He did his speech and closed the session without anyone else on stage aside from his guests. On Thursday, he was the one interviewing the celebrity speaker, Brian Cranston.

It may not sound like much, but all of these little things add up to a very interesting change in Cisco’s organization. Chuck Robbins is going to take a much different role than Chambers. He’s going to be closer to the products. He’s going to be more involved in decisions. He’s going to be the one driving the ship rather than waiting for someone to execute decisions he’s suggested. Will that be enough to help Cisco keep their position in the networking space? Only time will tell.

Tom’s Take

I’ve said before that in the sports world, you never want to be the coach that follows the legend. Everything you do will be scrutinized through their lens and compared negatively. Some very good people can emerge from the shadow of their predecessor, but most are doomed to spend very good years being compared unfairly to the myth of the past.

At first, it looked like Chuck Robbins was headed down the same path. But with the major internal changes, the focus on software instead of hardware, and his more hands-on approach to management, I think we’re quickly going to find ourselves speaking of Cisco in the same way we refer to IBM today as “Not Tom Watson’s IBM”. I hope that the Cisco of Chuck Robbins succeeds and thrives so that in the future people will refer not to Chuck Robbins as the successor of John Chambers but instead refer to John Chambers as the guy who came before the Great Chuck Robbins.

Subscription Defined Networking

Cisco’s big announcement this week ahead of Cisco Live was their new Intent-based Networking push. This new portfolio does include new switching platforms in the guise of the Catalyst 9000 series, but the majority of the innovation is coming in the software layer. Articles released so far tout the ability of the network to sense context, provide additional security based on advanced heuristics, and more. But the one thing that seems to be getting little publicity is the way you’re going to be paying for software going forward.

The Bottom Line

Cisco licensing has always been an all-or-nothing affair for the most part. You buy a switch and you have two options – basic L2 switching or everything the switch supports. Routers are similar. Through the early 15.x releases, Cisco routers could be loaded with an advanced image that ran every service imaginable. Those early 15.x releases gave us some attempts at role-based licensing for packet, voice, and security device routers. However, those efforts were rolled back due to customer response.

Shockingly, voice licensing has been the most progressive part of Cisco’s licensing model for a while now. CallManager 4.x didn’t even bother. Hook things up and they work. 5.x through 9.x used Device License Units (DLUs) to help normalize the cost of expensive phones versus their cheaper lobby and break room brethren. But even this model soon gave way to the current Unified Licensing models that attempt to bundle phones with software applications to mimic how people actually communicate in today’s offices.

So where does that leave Cisco? Should they charge for every little thing you could want when you purchase the device? Or should Cisco leave it wide open to the world and give users the right to decide how best to use their software? If John Chambers had still been in charge of Cisco, I know the answer would have been very similar to what we’ve seen in the past. Uncle John hated the idea of software revenue cannibalizing their hardware sales. Like many stalwarts of the IT industry, Chambers believed that hardware was king and software was an afterthought.

Pay As You Go

But Chuck Robbins has different ideas. Alongside the new capabilities of Cisco’s Intuitive Network plan they have also introduced a software subscription model. Now, if you want to use all these awesome new features for the future of the network according to Cisco you are going to pay for them. And you’re going to pay every year you use them.

It’s not that radical of a shift in mindset if you look at the market today. Cable subscriptions are going away in favor of specialized subscriptions to specific content. Custom box companies will charge you a monthly fee to ship you random (and not-so-random) items. You can even set up a subscription to buy essential items from Amazon and Walmart and have them shipped to your home regularly.

People don’t mind paying for things that they use regularly. And moving the cost model away from capital expenditure (CapEx) to an operational expenditure (OpEx) model makes all the sense in the world for Cisco. Studies from industry companies like Infinity Research have said that Infrastructure as a Service (Iaas) growth is going to be around 46% over the next 5 years. That growth money is coming from organizations shift CapEx budget to OpEx budget. For traditional vendors like Cisco, EMC, and Dell, it’s increasingly important for them to capture that budget revenue as it moves into a new pool designed to be spent a month or year at a time instead of once every five to seven years.

The end goal for Cisco is to replace those somewhat frequent hardware expenditures with more regular revenue streams from OpEx budgets. If you’re nodding your head and saying, “That’s pretty obvious…” you are likely from the crowd that couldn’t understand why Cisco kept doubling down on bigger, badder switching during the formative years of SDN. Cisco’s revenue model has always looked a lot like IBM and EMC. They need to sell more boxes more frequently to hit targets. However, SDN is moving the innovation away from the hardware, where Cisco is comfortable, and into the software, where Cisco has struggled as of late.

Software development doesn’t happen in a vacuum. It doesn’t occur because you give away features designed to entice customers into buying a Nexus 9000 instead of a Nexus 6000. Software development only happens when people are paying money for the things you are developing. Sometimes that means that you get bonus features that they figure out in the process of making the main feature. But it surely means that the people focused on making the software want to get it right the first time instead of having to ship endless patches to make it work right eventually. Because if your entire revenue model comes from software, it had better be good software that people want to buy and continue to pay for.

Tom’s Take

I think Chuck Robbins is dragging Cisco into the future kicking and screaming. He’s streamlined the organization by getting rid of the multitude of “pretenders to the throne” and tightening up the rest of the organization from a collection of competing business units into a logically organized group of product lines that can be marketed. The shift toward a forward-looking software strategy built on recurring revenue that isn’t dependent on hardware is the master stroke. If you ever had any doubts about what kind of ship Chuck was going to sail, this is your indicator.

In seven years, we’re not going to be talking about Cisco in the same way we did before. Much like we don’t talk about IBM like we used to. The IBM that exists today bears little resemblance to Tom Watson’s company of the past. I think that the Cisco of the future will bear the same superficial resemblance to John Chamber’s Cisco as well. And that’s for the better.