During the VMUnderground Networking Panel, we had a great discussion about software defined networking (SDN) among other topics. Seems that SDN is a big unknown for many out there. One of the reasons for this is the lack of specific applications of the technology. OSPF and SQL are things that solve problems. Can the same be said of SDN? One specific question regarded how to use SDN in small-to-medium enterprise shops. I fired off an answer from my own experience:
Since then, I’ve had a few people using my example with regards to a great use case for SDN. I decided that I needed to develop it a bit more now that I’ve had time to think about it.
Schools are a great example of the kinds of “do more with less” organizations that are becoming more common. They have enterprise-class networks and needs and live off budgets that wouldn’t buy janitorial supplies. In fact, if it weren’t for E-Rate, most schools would have technology from the Stone Age. But all this new tech doesn’t help if you can’t find a way for it to be used to the fullest for the purposes of educating students.
In my example, I talked about the shift from written standardized testing to online assessments. Oklahoma and Indiana are leading the way in getting rid of Scantrons and #2 pencils in favor of keyboards and monitors. The process works well for the most part with proper planning. My old job saw lots of scrambling to prep laptops, tablets, and lab machines for the rigors of running the test. But no amount of pre-config could prepare for the day when it was time to go live. On those days, the network was squarely in the sights of the administration.
I’ve seen emails go around banning non-testing students from the computers. I’ve seen hard-coded DNS entries on testing machines while the rest of the school had DNS taken offline to keep them from surfing the web. Redundant circuits. QoS policies that would make voice engineers cry. All in the hope of keeping the online test bandwidth free to get things completed in the testing window. All the while, I was thinking to myself, “There has got to be an easier way to do this…”
Redefining with Software
Enter SDN. The original use case for SDN at Stanford was network slicing. The Next-Gen Network Team wanted to use the spare capacity of the network for testing without crashing the whole system. Being able to reconfigure the network on the fly is a huge leap forward. Pushing policy into devices without CLI cuts down on the resume-generating events (RGE) in production equipment. So how can we apply these network slicing principles to my example?
On the day of the test, have the configuration system push down a new policy that gives the testing machines a guaranteed amount of bandwidth. This reservation will ensure each machine is able to get what it needs without being starved out. With SDN, we can set this policy on a per-IP basis to ensure it is enforced. This slice will exist separate from the production network to ensure that no one starting a huge FTP transfer or video upload will disrupt testing. By leaving the remaining bandwidth intact for the rest of the school’s production network administrators can ensure that the rest of the student body isn’t impacted during testing. With the move toward flipped classrooms and online curriculum augmentation, having available bandwidth is crucial.
Could this be done via non-SDN means? Sure. Granted, you’ll have to plan the QoS policy ahead of time and find a way to classify your end-user workstations properly. You’ll also have to tune things to make sure no one is dominating the test machine pool. And you have to get it right on every switch you program. And remove it when you’re done. Unless you missed a student or a window, in which case you’ll need to reprogram everything again. SDN certainly makes this process much easier and less disruptive.
SDN isn’t a product. You can’t order a part number for SDN-001 and get a box labeled SDN. Instead, it’s a process. You apply SDN to existing environment and extend the capabilities through new processes. Those processes need use cases. Use cases drive business cases. Business cases provide buy in from the stakeholders. That’s why discussing cases like the one above are so important. When you can find a use for SDN, you can get people to accept it. And that’s half the battle.