Reclaiming 1.1.1.1 For The Internet

Hopefully by now you’ve seen the announcement that CloudFlare has opened a new DNS service at the address of 1.1.1.1. We covered a bit of it on this week’s episode of the Gestalt IT Rundown. Next to Gmail, it’s probably the best April Fool’s announcement I’ve seen. However, it would seem that the Internet isn’t quite ready for a DNS resolver service that’s easy to remember. And that’s thanks in part to the accumulation of bad address hygiene.

Not So Random Numbers

The address range of 1/8 is owned by APNIC. They’ve had it for many years now but have never announced it publicly. Nor have they ever made any assignments of addresses in that space to clients or customers. In a world where IPv4 space is at a premium, why would a RIR choose to lose 16 million addresses?

Edit: As pointed out by Dale Carder of ES.net in a comment below, APNIC has been assigning address space out of 1 /8 since 2010. However, the most commonly leaked prefixes in that subnet that are difficult to assign because of bogus announcements come from 1.0.0.0/14.

As it turns out, 1/8 is a pretty bad address space for two reasons. 1.1.1.1 and 1.2.3.4. These two addresses are responsible for most of the inadvertent announcements in the entire 1/8 space. 1.2.3.4 is easy to figure out. It’s the most common example IP address given when talking about something. Don’t believe me? Google is your friend. Instead of using 192.0.2.0/24 like we should be using, we instead use the most common PIN, password, and luggage combination in the world. But, at least 1.2.3.4 makes sense.

Why is 1.1.1.1 so popular? Well, the first reason is thanks to Airespace wireless controllers. Airespace uses 1.1.1.1 as the default virtual interface address for just about everything. Here’s a good explanation from Andrew von Nagy. When Airespace was sold to Cisco, this became a very popular address for Cisco wireless networks. Except now that it’s in use as a DNS resolver there are issues with using it. The wireless experts I’ve talked to recommend changing that address to 192.0.2.1, since that address has been marked off for examples only and will never be globally routable.

The other place where 1.1.1.1 seems to be used quite frequently is in Cisco ASA failover interfaces. Cisco documentation recommended using 1.1.1.1 for the primary ASA failover and 1.1.1.2 as the secondary interface. The heartbeats between those two interfaces were active as long as the units were paired together. But, if they were active and reachable then any traffic destined for those globally routable addresses would be black holed. Now, ASAs should probably be using 192.0.2.1 and 192.0.2.2 instead. But beware that this will likely require downtime to reconfigure.

The 1.1.1.1 address confusion doesn’t stop there. Some systems like Nomadix use them as the default logout address. Vodafone used to use it as an image caching server. ISPs are blocking it upstream in some ACLs. Some security organizations even recommend dropping traffic to 1/8 as a bogon prevention measure. There’s every chance that 1.1.1.1 is going to be dropped by something in your network or along the transit path.

Planning Not To Fail

So, how are you going to proceed if you really, really want to use CloudFlare DNS? Well, the first step is to make sure that you don’t have 1.1.1.1 configured anywhere in your network. That means checking WLAN controllers, firewalls, and example configurations. Odds are good you’re running RFC1918 space. But you should try to ping 1.1.1.1 anyway. If you can ping it, then you should traceroute the address. If the traceroute leaves your local network, you probably have a good path.

Once you’ve determined that you’re capable of reaching 1.1.1.1, you need to test it first. Configure it on a test machine or VM and make sure it’s actually resolving addresses for you. Better safe than sorry. Once you know it’s really working like you want it to work, configure it on your internal DNS servers as a forwarder. You still want internal control of DNS thanks to things like Active Directory. But configuring it as a forwarder means you can take advantage of all the features CloudFlare is building into the system while still retaining anything you’ve done locally.


Tom’s Take

I’m glad CloudFlare and APNIC are reclaiming 1.1.1.1 for some useful purpose. CloudFlare can take the traffic load of all the horribly misconfigured systems in the world. APNIC can use this setup to do some analytics work to find out exactly how screwed up things are. I wouldn’t be shocked to see something similar happen to 1.2.3.4 in the future if this bet pays off.

I’ve been using 1.1.1.1 since April 2nd and it works. It’s fast and hasn’t broken yet, which is the best that you can hope for from a DNS server. I’m sure I’ll play around with some of the advanced features as they come online but for now I’m just happy that one of the most recognizable IP addresses in the world is working for me.

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It’s Probably Not The Wi-Fi

After finishing up Mobility Field Day last week, I got a chance to reflect on a lot of the information that was shared with the delegates. Much of the work in wireless now is focused on analytics. Companies like Cape Networks and Nyansa are trying to provide a holistic look at every part of the network infrastructure to help professionals figure out why their might be issues occurring for users. And over and over again, the resound cry that I heard was “It’s Not The Wi-Fi”

Building A Better Access Layer

Most of wireless is focused on the design of the physical layer. If you talk to any professional and ask them to show your their tool kit, they will likely pull out a whole array of mobile testing devices, USB network adapters, and diagramming software that would make AutoCAD jealous. All of these tools focus on the most important part of the equation for wireless professionals – the air. When the physical radio spectrum isn’t working users will complain about it. Wireless pros leap into action with their tools to figure out where the fault is. Either that, or they are very focused on providing the right design from the beginning with the tools validating that access point placement is correct and coverage overlap provides redundancy without interference.

These aren’t easy problems to solve. That’s why wireless folks get paid the big bucks to build it right or fix it after it was built wrong. Wired networkers don’t need to worry about microwave ovens or water pipes. Aside from the errant fluorescent light or overly aggressive pair of cable pliers, wired networks are generally free from the kinds of problems that can plague a wire-free access layer.

However, the better question that should be asked is how the users know it’s the wireless network that’s behind the faults? To the users, the system is in one of three states: perfect, horribly broken, or slow. I think we can all agree that the first state of perfection almost never actually exists in reality. It might exist shortly after installation when user load is low and actual application use is negligible. However, users are usually living in one of the latter states. Either the wireless is “slow” or it’s horribly broken. Why?

No-Service Station

As it turns out, thanks to some of the reporting from companies like Cape and Nyansa, it turns out that a large majority of the so-called wireless issues are in fact not wireless related at all. Those designs that wireless pros spend so much time fretting over are removed from the equation. Instead, the issues are with services.

Yes, those pesky network services. The ones like DNS or DHCP that seem invisible until they break. Or those services that we pay hefty sums to every month like Amazon or Microsoft Azure. The same issues that plague wired networking exist in the wireless world as well and seem to escape blame.

DNS is invisible to the majority of users. I’ve tried to explain it many times with middling to poor results. The idea that computers on the internet don’t understand words and must rely on services to translate them to numbers never seems to click. And when you add in the reliance on this system and how it can be knocked out with DDoS attacks or hijacking, it always comes back to being about the wireless.

It’s not hard to imagine why. The wireless is the first thing users see when they start having issues. It’s the new firewall. Or the new virus. Or the new popup. It’s a thing they can point to as the single source of problems. And if there is an issue at any point along the way, it must be the fault of the wireless. It can’t possibly be DNS or routing issues or a DDoS on AWS. Instead, the wireless is down.

And so wireless pros find themselves defending their designs and configurations without knowing that there is an issue somewhere else down the line. That’s why the analytics platforms of the future are so important. By giving wireless pros visibility into systems beyond the spectrum, they can reliably state that the wireless isn’t at fault. They can also engage other teams to find out why the DNS servers are down or why the default gateway for the branch office has been changed or is offline. That’s the kind of info that can turn a user away from blaming the wireless for all the problems and finding out what’s actually wrong.


Tom’s Take

If I had a nickel for every problem that was blamed on the wireless network or the firewall or some errant virus when that actually wasn’t the case, I could retire and buy my own evil overlord island next to Larry Ellison. Alas, these are issues that are never going to go away. Instead, the only real hope that we have is speeding the time to diagnose and resolve them by involving professionals that manage the systems that are actually down. And perhaps having some pictures of the monitoring systems goes a long way to tell users that they should make sure that the issue is indeed the wireless before proclaiming that it is. Because, to be honest, it probably isn’t the Wi-Fi.